uMicroalbumin, uACR, and uPCR Tests for Kidney Damage in Type 2 Diabetes and Hypertension
Kidney damage is a serious complication of both type 2 diabetes and hypertension. It is important to detect kidney damage early so that it can be treated and prevented from getting worse.
uMicroalbumin is the earliest test for kidney damage. It measures the amount of albumin, a type of protein, in the urine. Albumin should not be in the urine, so any amount of albumin in the urine is a sign of kidney damage.
uACR stands for urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio. It is a more specific test for kidney damage than uMicroalbumin. uACR measures the amount of albumin in the urine relative to the amount of creatinine, another type of protein. Creatinine is always present in the urine, so uACR provides a more accurate measure of albumin excretion.
uPCR stands for urine protein-to-creatinine ratio. It is a test for broader assessment of kidney damage. uPCR measures the amount of all proteins in the urine relative to the amount of creatinine. This includes albumin, but it also includes other proteins that can be present in the urine if the kidneys are damaged.
Which test to use when?
The best test to use for kidney damage depends on the patient's clinical condition.
uMicroalbumin is the best test for early detection of kidney damage. It is especially useful for people with type 2 diabetes and hypertension, who are at high risk of kidney damage.
uACR is the best test for confirming kidney damage and monitoring its progression. It is also a good test for predicting the risk of developing cardiovascular disease.
uPCR is the best test for assessing the severity of kidney damage and monitoring the response to treatment.
If the uMicroalbumin test is positive, a uACR test should be performed to confirm the diagnosis of kidney damage.
Once kidney damage is confirmed, uACR or uPCR tests should be performed every 3-6 months to monitor the progression of the disease and the response to treatment.
If you have type 2 diabetes or hypertension, talk to your doctor about getting tested for kidney damage. Early detection and treatment can help to prevent serious complicatins.